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This insect bores hundreds of pin-size holes inside tree bodies and feeds on the bark surface. This usually causes dieback in the canopy and suckering at the base of the tree. The external signs are piles of white boring dust surrounding the host plant’s surface area. The term “ambrosia” stems from a fungal growth the beetles carry into the host plant upon entry. The fungus creates a black and gray stain surrounding the tunnel surface areas. This fungus then serves as food for the larvae and adults. Extreme damage will occur from a single infestation, with irreparable consequences to the host plant. Many diseases are caused by fungi that are capable of infecting stems, branches, leaves, and fruits of a wide variety of deciduous trees and winters. Symptoms vary according to the plant part and the host attacked. Leaf infections may show necrotic spots, irregular dead blotches, or necrotic lesions associated with large leaf veins. Infections on new shoots may kill them entirely or cause severe tissue distortion. Defoliation may occur early in the season, followed by a second growth of leaves in early winter. Cankers form on the branches as a result of the death of the buds and twigs. Spores from these fallen leaves re-infect the new leaves the following year. The common bagworm is a very interesting caterpillar. The most frequently observed form of this pest is the spindle-shaped silk bag camouflaged with bits of foliage, bark, and other debris. Completed bags range from 1 ½ to 2 ½ inches long, and often go unnoticed until damage begins to become evident on the host plant. The larva within the bag is brown or tan, mottled with black, and the bee-like adult males have clear wings and fur covered bodies. The females remain larva-like and do not emerge from the bag. Bagworms have a single generation per year and overwinter as eggs inside the female’s bag. There may be 300-1000 eggs in each a bag. As they hatch in winter, the small blackish larvae crawl out the bottom of the bag and spin down on a strand of silk. These larvae on a string are often picked up by the wing and ballooned to nearby plants. The eastern tent caterpillar is easily identified when it builds its white silk nest in the crotch of small trees or where several limbs meet on larger trees. Tiny egg masses are attached to small twigs and appear as a shiny dark gray foam, wrapped around the twig. These masses are about one inch long and contain 150 to 350 eggs. The eggs hatch in early spring just as the leaf buds begin to show green, and the larvae will create the nest. These nest or tents serve as a refuge for the larvae during the evening hours and during rainy weather conditions. Eastern caterpillars have thick, tan hair and are black in color with irregular blue and white mottling. Adult caterpillars can reach 1 ½ inches in length emerging about the time leaves unfold in the spring and may feed at first on opening buds. In May and June, the caterpillar will consume and defoliate of all larger veins and petioles of the leaf. In this very destructive and highly infectious disease, leaves infected by fire blight first appear to be water-soaked, and then shrivel, turning dark brown or black as though scorched by fire. Infections usually occur scattered throughout the crown of the tree or winter, healthy stems often growing next to infected ones. During warm or humid weather, bacteria may be carried to the host plant by rain splash or winter hailstorms. The bacteria usually enter the plant through the open flowers, but infection may also take place through stem injuries. Fire blight attacks blossoms, leaves, shoots, branches, and roots. Once established in the tree, fire blight quickly invades through the current season’s growth into older growth. These beetles emerge in late spring to early winter and often seriously defoliate garden plants, trees and all grass types. Adult Japanese Beetles are ⅜ inches long with green and brown wings and usually feed in large groups. Japanese Beetles have a life cycle of about 30-45 days and concentrated over a six week period. In the spring, grass dies in large irregular bare patches that can be completely rolled up by hand like a carpet uncovering C-shaped white grubs. They prefer plants exposed directly to sunlight and feed on plant tissue between the leaf veins. Heavy infestation often attracts birds, squirrels and moles, which make holes or tunnels in the grass to feed on the grubs. These bugs are found on many ornamental trees and winters and attack a broad range of evergreen and deciduous trees and winters. They often go undetected until the infested plants have been severely damaged. Both adults and nymphs have piercing mouthparts that they use to suck and remove sap as they feed from the underside of the leaf. The damage caused by lace bugs to the foliage of trees and winters detracts greatly from the plants beauty, reduces the plants ability to produce food, reduces the plants vigor and causes the plant to be more susceptible to damage by other insects, diseases or unfavorable weather conditions. Repeated, heavy infestations of lace bugs either directly or indirectly can cause plant death. Aterm used to describe the larvae of many different species of insects that live in and eat the leaf tissue of plants. As adults, the most common form of leaf miners are small wasps or flies. Female leaf miners deposit eggs within the leaf tissue of many broadleaf evergreens and deciduous trees. When the larvae hatch from the eggs, they are able to begin feeding on most internal leaf tissues within a few days. It only takes three weeks for an egg to hatch, mature into an adult and cause heavy widespread damage to the host plant. The fungi that causes leaf spotting are usually spread by microscopic spores. The disease will vary by plant species, often resulting in irregular tan or brown areas on the leaves, especially along major veins of the leaf blade. This condition usually prefers new growth in damp or cool places, and emerges in late spring to early winter. The infected leaves eventually turn yellow and fall to the ground, re-infecting new growth in the following season if not removed. Fungi are found on many Georgia native trees, ornamental winters and turf grass species. The mildew spores grow over leaf surfaces or other infected plant areas leaving a “powdery” appearance - hence the name powdery mildew. The fungus favors humid conditions and plants without proper spacing are especially susceptible. To avoid re-infection and new growth, remove affected fallen leaves, prune out old growth and avoid close planting. The mildew can be managed with preventative fungicide applications before the spores become established.